ASA 127th Meeting M.I.T. 1994 June 6-10

2aBV6. Selective anti-cancer drug enhancements with therapeutic ultrasound.

Darayash Tata

Tom R. Tritton

Vermont Cancer Ctr. and Dept. of Pharmacology, Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405

Junru Wu

Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405

Floyd Dunn

Univ. of Illinois at Urbana--Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801

Continuous wave 1-MHz ultrasound at the therapeutic intensity of 1 W/cm[sup 2] was found to enhance significantly the hydroxyl radical production from two clinically employed redox cycling drugs, viz., Adriamycin (Doxorubicin) and Mitomycin C, with respect to the control drug-free insonicated phosphate buffer suspension. Benzoic acid (Bz) was employed as a sensitive chemical probe to detect hydroxyl radicals (OH[sup (centered dot)]). Bz is initially nonfluorescent and upon aromatic hydroxylation becomes permanently fluorescent. A series of time course studies up to one-half hour were performed on drug suspensions to characterize the OH[sup (centered dot)] generation in the presence and absence of ultrasound at 37 (degrees)C. Identical ultrasound treatments on non-redox cycling clinical drugs 5-Fluorouracil and Methotrexate did not yield any significant enhancement in the production of OH[sup (centered dot)] in comparison to the drug-free insonicated phosphate buffer suspension. One-half hour ultrasound exposures did not yield measurable changes in the chemical constitution of the four drugs as assessed through high-pressure liquid chromatography. Identical ultrasound treatments at 3 MHz did not produce at OH[sup (centered dot)] in the presence or in the absence of these four anti-cancer drugs. Free radical scavengers such as mannitol, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and a transition metal chelating agent were employed independently to discern the chemical species and pathways involved in the production of the OH[sup (centered dot)]. The findings strongly implicate an active role of acoustically induced cavitation in potentiating redox cycling drugs via chemical reduction and, thereafter, production of the OH[sup (centered dot)] via Fenton's pathway.